8-K

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM 8-K

 

 

CURRENT REPORT

Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

Date of Report (Date of earliest event reported):

August 1, 2019

 

 

Otonomy, Inc.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   001-36591   26-2590070

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation)

 

(Commission

File Number)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

4796 Executive Drive

San Diego, CA 92121

(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)

(619) 323-2200

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Not Applicable

(Former name or former address, if changed since last report.)

 

 

Check the appropriate box below if the Form 8-K filing is intended to simultaneously satisfy the filing obligation of the registrant under any of the following provisions (see General Instruction A.2. below):

 

Written communications pursuant to Rule 425 under the Securities Act (17 CFR 230.425)

 

Soliciting material pursuant to Rule 14a-12 under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14a-12)

 

Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 14d-2(b) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14d-2(b))

 

Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 13e-4(c) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.13e-4(c))

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange

on which registered

Common Stock, $0.001 par value   OTIC  

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

(Nasdaq Global Select Market)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933 (§230.405 of this chapter) or Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (§240.12b-2 of this chapter).


Emerging growth company  ☒

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☒

 

 

 


Item 1.01 Entry into a Material Definitive Agreement.

On August 1, 2019, Otonomy, Inc. (the “Company”) entered into a Sales Agreement (the “Sales Agreement”) with Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”) to sell shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $40.0 million from time to time, through an “at the market offering” program under which Cowen will act as sales agent or principal.

Under the Sales Agreement, the Company will set the parameters for the sale of shares, including the number or dollar value of shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, limitation on the number of shares that may be sold in any one trading day and any minimum price below which sales may not be made. Subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement, Cowen may sell the shares by methods deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. Cowen will use commercially reasonable efforts in conducting such sales activities consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of The Nasdaq Global Select Market LLC. The Sales Agreement may be terminated by the Company upon five days’ notice to Cowen for any reason or by Cowen upon five days’ notice to the Company for any reason or immediately under certain circumstances, including but not limited to the occurrence of a material adverse change in the Company.

The Sales Agreement provides that Cowen will be entitled to compensation for its services equal to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share of all shares sold through Cowen under the Sales Agreement. The Company has no obligation to sell any shares under the Sales Agreement, and may at any time suspend solicitation and offers under the Sales Agreement.

The shares will be issued pursuant to the Company’s effective shelf registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-227269) (the “Registration Statement”), filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on September 10, 2018, and declared effective by the SEC on September 21, 2018. On the date hereof, the Company will file a prospectus supplement (the “Prospectus Supplement”) with the SEC in connection with the offer and sale of the shares pursuant to the Sales Agreement.

The foregoing description of the Sales Agreement is not complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of such agreement, a copy of which is filed herewith as Exhibit 1.1 to this Current Report on Form 8-K and is incorporated herein by reference.

The legal opinion of Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, Professional Corporation relating to the shares of common stock being offered is filed as Exhibit 5.1 to this Current Report on Form 8-K.

This Current Report shall not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy the securities discussed herein, nor shall there be any sale of such securities in any state or jurisdiction in which such offer, solicitation or sale would be unlawful prior to registration or qualification under the securities laws of any such state or jurisdiction.

Item 9.01 Financial Statements and Exhibits.

(d) Exhibits

 

Exhibit
No.
  

Description

  1.1    Sales Agreement, dated as of August 1, 2019, between Otonomy, Inc. and Cowen and Company, LLC.
  5.1    Opinion of Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, Professional Corporation.
23.1    Consent of Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, Professional Corporation (included in Exhibit 5.1).


SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned hereunto duly authorized.

 

    OTONOMY, INC.
Date: August 1, 2019     By:   /s/ Paul E. Cayer
      Paul E. Cayer
      Chief Financial and Business Officer
EX-1.1

Exhibit 1.1

OTONOMY, INC.

$40,000,000

COMMON STOCK

SALES AGREEMENT

August 1, 2019

Cowen and Company, LLC

599 Lexington Avenue

New York, NY 10022

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Otonomy, Inc. (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”), as follows:

1. Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through or to Cowen, acting as agent and/or principal, shares (the “Placement Shares”) of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “Common Stock”), having an aggregate offering price of up to $40,000,000. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitation set forth in this Section 1 on the number of shares of Common Stock issued and sold under this Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and Cowen shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance. The issuance and sale of the Placement Shares through or to Cowen will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) filed by the Company and declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”), although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to use the Registration Statement (as defined below) to issue the Placement Shares.

The Company has filed, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Securities Act”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-227269), including a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including the Placement Shares, to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”). The Company has prepared a prospectus supplement specifically relating to the Placement Shares (the “Prospectus Supplement”) to the base prospectus included as part of such registration statement. The Company has furnished to Cowen, for use by Cowen, copies of the prospectus included as part of such registration statement, as supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement, relating to the Placement Shares. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement, as amended when it became effective, and any post-effective amendment thereto, including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including


any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B or 462(b) of the Securities Act, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The base prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement, in the form in which such prospectus and/or Prospectus Supplement have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, together with any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433 of the Securities Act regulations (“Rule 433”), relating to the Placement Shares that (i) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company or (ii) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i), in each case in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g), is herein called the “Prospectus.” Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein, and any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing after the execution hereof of any document with the Commission deemed to be incorporated by reference therein. If prior to the third anniversary of the initial effective date of the Registration Statement, (i) any of the Placement Shares remain unsold, (ii) the Company has filed and caused to be declared effective a registration statement relating to the Placement Shares in a form reasonably satisfactory to Cowen and (iii) the Company shall have taken all action reasonably necessary or appropriate to permit the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares to continue as contemplated herein, references herein to the Registration Statement shall be deemed to be to such new shelf registration statement. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include any copy filed with the Commission pursuant to the Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval System or any successor thereto (collectively, “EDGAR”).

2. Placements. Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell the Placement Shares hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify Cowen by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) (a “Placement Notice”) containing the parameters in accordance with which it desires the Placement Shares to be sold, which shall at a minimum include the number of shares of Placement Shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one Trading Day (as defined in Section 3) and any minimum price below which sales may not be made, a form of which containing such minimum sales parameters necessary is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 2 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from Cowen set forth on Schedule 2, as such Schedule 2 may be amended from time to time. The Placement Notice shall be effective upon receipt by Cowen unless and until (i) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, Cowen declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, (ii) the entire amount of the Placement Shares have been sold, (iii) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Company suspends or terminates the Placement Notice for any reason, in its sole discretion, (iv) the Company issues a subsequent Placement Notice with parameters superseding those in the earlier dated Placement


Notice for any reason, in its sole discretion, or (v) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 11. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to Cowen in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 3. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor Cowen will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to Cowen and Cowen does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control.

3. Sale of Placement Shares by Cowen. Subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon the Company’s delivery of a Placement Notice, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, Cowen, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market, Inc. (“Nasdaq”) to sell such Placement Shares up to the amount specified, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice. Cowen will provide written confirmation to the Company (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder setting forth the number of Placement Shares sold on such day, the volume-weighted average price of the Placement Shares sold, and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company. Cowen may sell Placement Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 of the Securities Act. Cowen shall not purchase Placement Shares for its own account as principal unless expressly authorized to do so by the Company in a Placement Notice. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that Cowen will be successful in selling Placement Shares, and (ii) Cowen will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by Cowen to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Section 3. For the purposes hereof, “Trading Day” means any day on which the Company’s Common Stock is purchased and sold on the principal market on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted.

4. Suspension of Sales.

(a) The Company or Cowen may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable facsimile transmission or email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2), suspend any sale of Placement Shares (a “Suspension”); provided, however, that such suspension shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice. While a Suspension is


in effect, any obligation under Sections 7(m), 7(n) and 7(o) with respect to the delivery of certificates, opinions or comfort letters to Cowen, shall be waived. Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against the other unless it is made to one of the individuals named on Schedule 2 hereto, as such schedule may be amended in writing from time to time.

(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Company is in possession of material non-public information, the Company and Cowen agree that (i) no sale of Placement Shares will take place, (ii) the Company shall not request the sale of any Placement Shares, and (iii) Cowen shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Placement Shares.

(c) The Registration Statement was declared effective on September 21, 2018. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Registration Statement is no longer effective under the Securities Act, the Company shall promptly notify Cowen, the Company shall not request the sale of any Placement Shares, and Cowen shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Placement Shares.

5. Settlement.

(a) Settlement of Placement Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second (2nd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading of the Common Stock) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date” and the first such settlement date, the “First Delivery Date”). The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by Cowen at which such Placement Shares were sold, after deduction for (i) Cowen’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, (ii) any other amounts due and payable by the Company to Cowen hereunder pursuant to Section 7(g) (Expenses) hereof, and (iii) any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales.

(b) Delivery of Placement Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Placement Shares being sold by crediting Cowen’s or its designee’s account (provided Cowen shall have given the Company written notice of such designee prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which in all cases shall be freely tradeable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, Cowen will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date. The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver duly authorized Placement Shares on a Settlement Date, the Company agrees that in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 9(a) (Indemnification and Contribution) hereto, it will (i) hold Cowen harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or expense (including reasonable and documented legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company and (ii) pay to Cowen any commission, discount, or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.


6. Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, Cowen that as of the date of this Agreement, each Representation Date (as defined in Section 7(m)), each date on which a Placement Notice is given, and any date on which Placement Shares are sold hereunder:

(a) Compliance with Registration Requirements. The Registration Statement has been declared effective by the Commission and any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement shall have become effective under the Securities Act prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice by the Company. The Company has complied to the Commission’s satisfaction with all requests of the Commission for additional or supplemental information in connection therewith, if any. No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, or any post-effective amendment thereto, or the Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, if any, is in effect and no proceedings for such purpose have been instituted or are pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, are threatened by the Commission. The Company meets the requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act. The proposed sale of the Placement Shares hereunder meets the requirements of General Instruction I.B.1 of Form S-3.

(b) No Misstatement or Omission. The Prospectus when filed will comply or complied and, as amended or supplemented, if applicable, will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act. Each of the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, and any post-effective amendment or supplement thereto, at the time it became effective or its date, as applicable, complied, and as of each of the Settlement Dates, if any, will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act and did not and, as of each Settlement Date, if any, will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, as of its date, did not and, as of each of the Settlement Dates, if any, will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The representations and warranties set forth in the two immediately preceding sentences do not apply to statements in or omissions from the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, or any post-effective amendment thereto, or the Prospectus, or any amendments or supplements thereto, made in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to Cowen furnished to the Company in writing by Cowen expressly for use therein. There are no contracts or other documents required to be described in the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement which have not been described or filed as required.

(c) Offering Materials Furnished to Cowen. The Company has delivered to Cowen copies of the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, in such quantities and at such places as Cowen has reasonably requested.

(d) Emerging Growth Company. The Company is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act. The Company agrees to notify Cowen promptly upon the Company ceasing to be an emerging growth company.


(e) Not an Ineligible Issuer. The Company currently is not an “ineligible issuer,” as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. The Company agrees to notify Cowen promptly upon the Company becoming an “ineligible issuer.”

(f) Distribution of Offering Material By the Company. The Company has not distributed and will not distribute, prior to the completion of Cowen’s distribution of the Placement Shares, any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares other than the Prospectus or the Registration Statement.

(g) The Sales Agreement. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by, and is a valid and binding agreement of, the Company, enforceable in accordance with its terms, except as rights to indemnification hereunder may be limited by applicable law and except as the enforcement hereof may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or other similar laws relating to or affecting the rights and remedies of creditors or by general equitable principles.

(h) Authorization of the Common Stock. The Placement Shares, when issued and delivered, will be duly authorized for issuance and sale pursuant to this Agreement and, when issued and delivered by the Company against payment therefor to Cowen as agent pursuant to this Agreement, will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

(i) No Applicable Registration or Other Similar Rights. There are no persons with registration or other similar rights to have any equity or debt securities registered for sale under the Registration Statement or included in the offering contemplated by this Agreement, except for such rights as have been duly waived.

(j) No Material Adverse Change. Except as otherwise disclosed in the Prospectus, subsequent to the respective dates as of which information is given in the Prospectus: (i) there has been no material adverse change, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a material adverse change, in the condition, financial or otherwise, or in the earnings, business, operations, or prospects whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business, of the Company and its subsidiaries, if any, considered as one entity (any such change is called a “Material Adverse Change”); (ii) the Company and its subsidiaries, considered as one entity, have not incurred any material liability or obligation, indirect, direct or contingent, not in the ordinary course of business nor entered into any material transaction or agreement not in the ordinary course of business; and (iii) there has been no dividend or distribution of any kind declared, paid or made by the Company or, except for regular quarterly dividends publicly announced by the Company or dividends paid to the Company or other subsidiaries, by any of its subsidiaries on any class of capital stock or repurchase or redemption by the Company or any of its subsidiaries of any class of capital stock.

(k) Independent Accountants. Ernst & Young LLP, who has expressed its opinion with respect to the financial statements (which term as used in this Agreement includes the related notes thereto) and supporting schedules filed with the Commission as a part of and incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement and included in the Prospectus, is an independent registered public accounting firm as required by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act.


(l) Preparation of the Financial Statements. The financial statements (including the related notes thereto) of the Company incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus present fairly in all material respects the financial position of the Company and its subsidiaries as of the dates indicated and the results of their operations and the changes in their cash flows for the periods specified; such financial statements have been prepared in all material respects in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles as applied in the United States applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods covered thereby, except unaudited financial statements, which are subject to normal year-end adjustment and do not contain certain footnotes as permitted by the applicable rules of the Commission. No other financial statements or supporting schedules are required to be included in or incorporated in the Registration Statement by the applicable rules of the Commission. To the extent required, the financial data set forth or incorporated in the Prospectus under the captions “Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges” and “Selected Financial Data” fairly present in all material respects the information set forth therein on a basis consistent with that of the audited financial statements contained, incorporated by reference or deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement.

(m) XBRL. The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the each Registration Statement fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

(n) Incorporation and Good Standing of the Company and its Subsidiaries. The Company has been duly incorporated and is validly existing as a corporation in good standing under the laws of the State of Delaware and has corporate power and authority to own, lease and operate its properties and to conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and to enter into and perform its obligations under this Agreement. The Company has no significant subsidiaries (as defined in Rule 1-02 (w) of Regulation S-X of the Exchange Act). The Company is duly qualified as a foreign corporation to transact business and is in good standing in the State of Delaware and each other jurisdiction in which such qualification is required, whether by reason of the ownership or leasing of property or the conduct of business, except for such jurisdictions (other than the State of Delaware) where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Change. The Company does not own or control, directly or indirectly, any corporation, association or other entity other than the subsidiaries, if any, listed in Exhibit 21.1 to the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the most recently ended fiscal year and other than (i) those subsidiaries not required to be listed on Exhibit 21.1 by Item 601 of Regulation S-K under the Exchange Act and (ii) those subsidiaries formed since the last day of the most recently ended fiscal year.

(o) Capital Stock Matters. The Common Stock conforms in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Prospectus. All of the issued and outstanding shares of Common Stock have been duly authorized and validly issued, are fully paid and nonassessable and have been issued in compliance with federal and state securities laws. None of the outstanding shares of Common Stock were issued in violation of any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities of the Company. There are no authorized or outstanding options, warrants, preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or


other rights to purchase, or equity or debt securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for, any capital stock of the Company or any of its subsidiaries other than those described in all material respects in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. The description of the Company’s stock option, stock bonus and other stock plans or arrangements, and the options or other rights granted thereunder, set forth in the Prospectus accurately and fairly presents in all material respects the information required to be shown with respect to such plans, arrangements, options and rights.

(p) Non-Contravention of Existing Instruments; No Further Authorizations or Approvals Required. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is in violation of its charter or by-laws or is in default (or, with the giving of notice or lapse of time, would be in default) (“Default”) under any indenture, mortgage, loan or credit agreement, note, contract, franchise, lease or other instrument to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which it or any of them may be bound, or to which any of the property or assets of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject (each, an “Existing Instrument”), except for such Defaults as would not, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Change. The Company’s execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby and by the Prospectus (i) have been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action and will not result in any violation of the provisions of the charter or by-laws of the Company or any subsidiary, (ii) will not conflict with or constitute a breach of, or Default under, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property or assets of the Company or any of its subsidiaries pursuant to, or require the consent of any other party to, any Existing Instrument, except for such conflicts, breaches, Defaults, liens, charges or encumbrances as would not, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Change and (iii) will not result in any violation of any law, administrative regulation or administrative or court decree applicable to the Company or any subsidiary. No consent, approval, authorization or other order of, or registration or filing with, any court or other governmental or regulatory authority or agency, is required for the Company’s execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby and by the Prospectus, except such as have been obtained or made by the Company and are in full force and effect under the Securities Act and such as may be required under applicable state securities or blue sky laws and from the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”).

(q) No Material Actions or Proceedings. Except as disclosed in the Prospectus, there is no action, suit, proceeding, inquiry or investigation brought by or before any governmental entity, now pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened against or affecting the Company or any of its subsidiaries which would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change or adversely affect in a material manner the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement. No material labor dispute with the employees of the Company or any of its subsidiaries exists or, to the Company’s knowledge, is threatened or imminent.

(r) All Necessary Permits, etc. The Company and each subsidiary possess such valid and current certificates, authorizations or permits required by the appropriate state, federal or foreign regulatory agencies or bodies to conduct their respective businesses as currently conducted and as described in the Prospectus (the “Permits”), except those Permits with respect to which the failure to so possess would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change. Neither Company nor any subsidiary has received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of, or non-compliance with, any such Permit which, individually or in the aggregate, would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change.


(s) Tax Law Compliance. The Company and its consolidated subsidiaries, if any, have filed all necessary federal, state and foreign income, property and franchise tax returns or have properly requested extensions thereof and have paid all taxes required to be paid by any of them and, if due and payable, any related or similar assessment, fine or penalty levied against any of them except as may be being contested in good faith and by appropriate proceedings, and except as could not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to result in a Material Adverse Change. The Company has made adequate charges, accruals and reserves in the applicable financial statements referred to in Section 6(l) above in respect of all federal, state and foreign income, property and franchise taxes for all periods as to which the tax liability of the Company or any of its consolidated subsidiaries, if any, has not been finally determined.

(t) Company Not an Investment Company”. The Company has been advised of the rules and requirements under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”). The Company is not, and immediately after the sale of the Placement Shares and receipt of the proceeds thereof will not be required to register as an “investment company” within the meaning of Investment Company Act.

(u) Insurance. Except as otherwise described in the Prospectus, each of the Company, its subsidiaries and/or the applicable property owner maintains insurance policies in such amounts and with such deductibles and covering such risks as are adequate and customary for its business including, but not limited to, policies covering real and personal property owned or leased by the Company and its subsidiaries against theft, damage, destruction, acts of vandalism. The Company reasonably believes that it or any subsidiary will be able (i) to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such policies expire or (ii) to obtain comparable coverage from similar institutions as may be necessary or appropriate to conduct its business as now conducted and at a cost that would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change.

(v) No Price Stabilization or Manipulation. The Company has not taken and will not take, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that might be reasonably expected to cause or result in stabilization or manipulation of the price of the Placement Shares or of any “reference security” (as defined in Rule 100 of Regulation M under the Exchange Act (“Regulation M”)) with respect to the Placement Shares.

(w) Related Party Transactions. There are no business relationships or related-party transactions involving the Company or any subsidiary or any other person required to be described in the Prospectus which have not been described as required.

(x) Exchange Act Compliance. The documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, at the time they were or hereafter are filed with the Commission, complied and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act, and, when read together with the other information in the Prospectus, at the Settlement Dates, will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a


material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The Company is subject to and in compliance in all material respects with the reporting requirements of Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

(y) No Unlawful Contributions or Other Payments. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any director, officer, employee, agent, affiliate or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any subsidiary has (i) used any corporate funds for any unlawful contribution, gift, entertainment or other unlawful expense relating to political activity; (ii) made any direct or indirect unlawful payment to any foreign or domestic government officials or employees, political parties or campaigns, political party officials, or candidates for political office from corporate funds; (iii) violated or is in violation of any provision of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or any applicable anti-corruption laws, rules, or regulations of any other jurisdiction in which the Company or any subsidiary conducts business; or (iv) made any other unlawful bribe, rebate, payoff, influence payment, kickback or other unlawful payment to any person.

(z) Compliance with Money Laundering Laws. The operations of the Company and its subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with all applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements, including those of the U.S. Bank Secrecy Act, as amended by Title III of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act), and the applicable anti-money laundering statutes of jurisdictions where the Company and its subsidiaries conduct business, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency (collectively, the “Anti-Money Laundering Laws”), and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority, body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any of its subsidiaries with respect to Anti-Money Laundering Laws is pending, or to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.

(aa) Compliance with OFAC.

 

  (A)

Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries, nor any director, officer or employee thereof, nor to the Company’s knowledge, any agent, affiliate, representative, or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, is an individual or entity (“Person”) that is, or is owned or controlled by a Person that is: (i) the subject of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”), the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, Her Majesty’s Treasury, or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), nor (ii) located, organized, or resident in a country or territory that is the subject of a U.S. government embargo (including, without limitation, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, Syria and the Crimea).

 

  (B)

The Company will not, directly or indirectly, use the Net Proceeds, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such Net Proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other Person: (i) to fund or facilitate any activities or business of or with any Person that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject of Sanctions, or in any country or territory that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject of a U.S. government embargo; or (ii) in any other manner that will result in a violation of Sanctions by any Person (including Cowen).


  (C)

For the past five (5) years, the Company and its subsidiaries have not knowingly engaged in, are not now knowingly engaged in, and will not engage in, any direct or indirect dealings or transactions with any Person that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of Sanctions or any country or territory that, at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of a U.S. government embargo.

(bb) Company’s Accounting System. The Company maintains a system of “internal control over financial reporting” (as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(f) of the General Rules and Regulations under the Exchange Act (the “Exchange Act Rules”)) that complies with the requirements of the Exchange Act and has been designed by their respective principal executive and principal financial officers, or under their supervision, to provide reasonable assurances that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP and to maintain accountability for assets; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences. The Company’s internal control over financial reporting is effective. Except as described in the Prospectus, since the end of the Company’s most recent audited fiscal year, there has been (A) no material weakness in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (whether or not remediated) and (B) no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

(cc) Disclosure Controls. The Company maintains disclosure controls and procedures (as such is defined in Rule 13a-15(e) of the Exchange Act Rules) that comply with the requirements of the Exchange Act; such disclosure controls and procedures have been designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in reports that it files or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including controls and procedures designed to ensure that such information is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management to allow timely decisions regarding disclosures. The Company has conducted evaluations of the effectiveness of their disclosure controls as required by Rule 13a-15 of the Exchange Act.

(dd) Compliance with Environmental Laws. Except as otherwise described in the Prospectus, and except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Change (i) neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is in violation of any federal, state, local or foreign law or, regulation relating to pollution or protection of human health or the environment (including, without limitation, ambient air, surface water, groundwater, land surface or subsurface strata) or wildlife, including without limitation, laws and regulations relating to emissions, discharges, releases or threatened releases of chemicals,


pollutants, contaminants, wastes, toxic substances, hazardous substances, petroleum and petroleum products (collectively, “Materials of Environmental Concern”), or otherwise relating to the manufacture, processing, distribution, use, treatment, storage, disposal, transport or handling of Materials of Environmental Concern (collectively, “Environmental Laws”), which violation includes, but is not limited to, noncompliance with any permits or other governmental authorizations required for the operation of the business of the Company or its subsidiaries under applicable Environmental Laws, or noncompliance with the terms and conditions thereof, nor has the Company or any of its subsidiaries received any written communication, whether from a governmental authority, citizens group, employee or otherwise, that alleges that the Company or any of its subsidiaries is in violation of any Environmental Law; (ii) there is no claim, action or cause of action filed with a court or governmental authority, no investigation with respect to which the Company has received written notice, and no written notice by any person or entity alleging potential liability for investigatory costs, cleanup costs, governmental responses costs, natural resources damages, property damages, personal injuries, attorneys’ fees or penalties arising out of, based on or resulting from the presence, or release into the environment, of any Material of Environmental Concern at any location owned, leased or operated by the Company or any of its subsidiaries, now or in the past (collectively, “Environmental Claims”), pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened against the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any person or entity whose liability for any Environmental Claim the Company or any of its subsidiaries has retained or assumed either contractually or by operation of law; and (iii) to the best of the Company’s knowledge, there are no past or present actions, activities, circumstances, conditions, events or incidents, including, without limitation, the release, emission, discharge, presence or disposal of any Material of Environmental Concern, that reasonably could result in a violation of any Environmental Law or form the basis of a potential Environmental Claim against the Company or any of its subsidiaries or against any person or entity whose liability for any Environmental Claim the Company or any of its subsidiaries has retained or assumed either contractually or by operation of law.

(ee) Intellectual Property. The Company and its subsidiaries own or possess or can obtain on commercially reasonable terms rights to use all patents, patent applications, trademarks, trademark registrations, service marks, service mark registrations, Internet domain name registrations, copyrights, copyright registrations, licenses, trade secrets, inventions, software, works of authorships, trade marks, service marks, trade names, databases, formulae, know how, Internet domain names and other intellectual property (including trade secrets and other unpatented and/or unpatentable proprietary confidential information, systems, or procedures) (collectively, “Intellectual Property”) necessary to conduct their respective businesses as currently conducted, and as proposed to be conducted and described in the Prospectus, except where the failure to own, possess or obtain such Intellectual Property would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to cause a Material Adverse Change. The Company and its subsidiaries have not received any opinion from their legal counsel concluding that any activities of their respective businesses infringe, misappropriate, or otherwise violate, valid and enforceable Intellectual Property of any other person, and have not received written notice of any challenge, which is to their knowledge still pending, by any other person to the rights of the Company and its subsidiaries with respect to any Intellectual Property owned or used by the Company or its subsidiaries. To the knowledge of the Company, the Company and its subsidiaries’ respective businesses as now conducted do not give rise to any infringement of, any misappropriation of, or other violation of, any valid and enforceable Intellectual Property Rights of any other person that would cause a Material Adverse Change, and all licenses for the use of the Intellectual Property described in the Prospectus are


valid, binding upon, and enforceable by or against the parties thereto in accordance to its terms. The Company has complied in all material respects with, and is not in breach nor has received any asserted or threatened claim of breach of any Intellectual Property license, and the Company has no knowledge of any breach or anticipated breach by any other person to any Intellectual Property license. Except as described in the Prospectus, and to the knowledge of the Company, no complaint has been made against the Company alleging the infringement by the Company of any patent, trademark, service mark, trade name, copyright, trade secret, license in or other intellectual property right or franchise right of any person. The Company has taken reasonable steps to protect, maintain and safeguard its Intellectual Property, including the execution of appropriate nondisclosure and confidentiality agreements. The consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement will not result in the loss or impairment of or payment of any additional amounts with respect to, nor require the consent of any other person in respect of, the Company’s right to own, use, or hold for use any of the Intellectual Property as owned, used or held for use in the conduct of the business as currently conducted.

(ff) Regulatory Consents and Permits. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company and each of its Subsidiaries have such permits, licenses, patents, franchises, certificates of need and other approvals and other authorizations (the “Regulatory Permits”) issued by the appropriate domestic or foreign regional, federal, state, or local regulatory agencies or bodies necessary to conduct the business of the Company, including, without limitation, any Investigational New Drug Application (an “IND”) and/or New Drug Application (“NDA”), as required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”), or any other authorizations issued by domestic or foreign regional, federal, state, or local agencies or bodies engaged in the regulation of pharmaceuticals such as those being developed by the Company and its Subsidiaries, except for any of the foregoing that would not reasonably be expected to, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Change; the Company is in compliance in all material respects with the requirements of the Regulatory Permits, and all of the Regulatory Permits are valid and in full force and effect, in each case in all material respects, except where any invalidity, individually or in the aggregate, would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Change; the Company has not received any written notice of proceedings relating to the revocation, termination, modification or impairment of rights of any of the Regulatory Permits that, individually or in the aggregate, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding, would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change; the Company has not failed to submit to the FDA any IND or NDA necessary to conduct the business of the Company, any such filings that were required to be made were in material compliance with applicable laws when filed, and no material deficiencies have been asserted by the FDA with respect to any such filings or submissions that were made. 

(gg) Regulatory Filings. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has failed to file with the applicable regulatory authorities (including, without limitation, the FDA, or any foreign, federal, state, provincial or local governmental or regulatory authority performing functions similar to those performed by the FDA) any required filing, declaration, listing, registration, report or submission, except for such failures that, individually or in the aggregate, would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Change; except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, all such filings, declarations, listings, registrations, reports or submissions were in compliance with applicable laws when filed and no deficiencies have been asserted by any


applicable regulatory authority with respect to any such filings, declarations, listings, registrations, reports or submissions, except for any deficiencies that, individually or in the aggregate, would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Change. The Company has operated and currently is, in all material respects, in compliance with the United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, all applicable rules and regulations of the FDA and other federal, state, local and foreign governmental bodies exercising comparable authority. The Company has no knowledge of any studies, tests or trials not described in the Prospectus the results of which reasonably call into question in any material respect the results of the studies, tests and trials described in the Prospectus.

(hh) Clinical Studies. To the Company’s knowledge, the studies, tests and preclinical and clinical investigations conducted by or on behalf of the Company and described in the Prospectus were and, if still pending, are, in all material respects, being conducted in accordance with established protocols, procedures and controls pursuant to, where applicable, accepted professional scientific standards for products or product candidates comparable to those being developed by the Company, and all Applicable Laws (as defined below) and Authorizations (as defined below), including, without limitation, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and implementing regulations including good laboratory practice (“GLP”) regulations (21 C.F.R. Part 58) if any such studies, tests or preclinical and clinical investigations are being conducted pursuant to GLP, and good clinical practice and IND requirements (21 C.F.R. Parts 50, 54, 56, and 312) if any such studies, tests or preclinical and clinical investigations were or are subject to good clinical practice regulations or were or are being conducted under an IND; the descriptions of the results of such studies, tests and trials contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus are accurate in all material respects and fairly present the data derived from such studies, tests and trials; except to the extent disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company is not aware of any studies, tests or trials the results of which the Company believes reasonably call into question, in any material respect, the study, test, or trial results described or referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus when viewed in the context in which such results are described and the clinical state of development; and neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries have received any written notices or correspondence from any governmental authority requiring the termination, suspension or material modification of any studies, tests or preclinical or clinical investigations conducted by or on behalf of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries.

(ii) Listing. The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) or Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act and is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market (“the Exchange”), and the Company has taken no action designed to, or reasonably likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Stock from the Exchange, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or Nasdaq is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. To the Company’s knowledge, it is in compliance in all material respects with all applicable listing requirements of Nasdaq.

(jj) Brokers. Except for Cowen, there is no broker, finder or other party that is entitled to receive from the Company any brokerage or finder’s fee or other fee or commission as a result of any transactions contemplated by this Agreement.


(kk) No Reliance. The Company has not relied upon Cowen or legal counsel for Cowen for any legal, tax or accounting advice in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares.

(ll) Compliance with Laws. The Company has not been advised, and has no reason to believe, that it and each of its subsidiaries are not conducting business in compliance with all applicable laws, rules and regulations of the jurisdictions in which it is conducting business, except where failure to be so in compliance would not result in a Material Adverse Change. Each of the Company and its Subsidiaries: (A) is and at all times has been in compliance with all statutes, rules, or regulations applicable to the ownership, testing, development, manufacture, packaging, processing, use, distribution, marketing, labeling, promotion, sale, offer for sale, storage, import, export or disposal of any product manufactured or distributed by the Company or its Subsidiaries (“Applicable Laws”), except as would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect; (B) has not received any FDA Form 483, notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other correspondence or notice from the FDA or any other governmental authority alleging or asserting noncompliance in any material respect with any Applicable Laws or any licenses, certificates, approvals, clearances, authorizations, permits and supplements or amendments thereto required by any such Applicable Laws (“Authorizations”); (C) possesses all material Authorizations and such Authorizations are valid and in full force and effect and are not in material violation of any term of any such Authorizations; (D) has not received notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from any governmental authority or third party alleging that any product operation or activity is in violation of any Applicable Laws or Authorizations and has no knowledge that any such governmental authority or third party is considering any such claim, litigation, arbitration, action, suit, investigation or proceeding; (E) has not received notice that any governmental authority has taken, is taking or intends to take action to limit, suspend, or revoke any Authorizations and has no knowledge that any such governmental authority is considering such action; and (F) has filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Applicable Laws or Authorizations and that all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were complete and correct in all material respects on the date filed (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission); and (G) has not, either voluntarily or involuntarily, initiated, conducted, or issued or caused to be initiated, conducted or issued, any recall, market withdrawal or replacement, safety alert, “dear healthcare provider” letter, or other notice or action relating to the alleged lack of safety or efficacy of any product or any alleged product defect or violation and, to the Company’s knowledge, no third party has initiated, conducted or intends to initiate any such notice or action.

(mm) Privacy Laws. The Company and each of its subsidiaries are in material compliance with all applicable data privacy and security laws and regulations, including, without limitation, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (“HIPAA”), as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (42 U.S.C. Section 17921 et seq.). The Company and each its subsidiaries have taken and continue to take actions to comply with the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) (EU 2016/679) (collectively, “Privacy Laws”). To aid compliance with the Privacy Laws, the Company and each of its subsidiaries have in place policies and procedures (the “Policies”) relating to data


privacy and security and the then-current practices of the Company around collection, storage, use, disclosure, handling and analysis of Personal Data (the “Privacy Practices”), and takes steps to comply in all material aspects with such Policies. To the extent required by applicable law, the Company provides notice of its Privacy Practices to its customers, employees, third party vendors and representatives, except where the failure to do so could not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to result in a Material Adverse Change. “Personal Data” means (i) a natural persons’ name, street address, telephone number, email address, photograph, social security number, bank information, or customer or account number; (ii) any information which would qualify as “personally identifying information” under the Federal Trade Commission Act, as amended; (iii) Protected Health Information as defined by HIPAA; (iv) “personal data” as defined by GDPR; and (v) any other piece of information that allows the identification of such natural person, or his or her family, or permits the collection or analysis of any data related to an identified person’s health or sexual orientation. The execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement or any other agreement referred to in this Agreement will not result in a breach of any Privacy Laws or Policies. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries, (i) has received notice of any actual or potential liability under or relating to, or actual or potential violation of, any of the Privacy Laws, and has no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in any such notice; (ii) is currently conducting or paying for, in whole or in part, any material investigation, remediation or other corrective action pursuant to any Privacy Law; or (iii) is a party to any order, decree, or agreement that imposed any obligation or liability under any Privacy Law.

(nn) IT Systems. (i)(x) To the Company’s knowledge, there has been no material security breach or material attack or other material compromise of or relating to any of the Company’s and its subsidiaries’ information technology and computer systems, networks, hardware, software, data (including the data of their respective customers, employees, suppliers, vendors and any third party data maintained by or on behalf of them), equipment or technology (“IT Systems and Data”), and (y) the Company and its subsidiaries have not been notified of, and have no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in any such material security breach, material attack or material compromise to their IT Systems and Data, (ii) the Company and each of its subsidiaries have materially complied, and are presently in material compliance with, all applicable laws, statutes or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority and all industry guidelines, standards, internal policies and contractual obligations relating to the security of IT Systems and Data and to the protection of such IT Systems and Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification, except where the failure to be so in compliance could not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to result in a Material Adverse Change and (iii) the Company and each of its subsidiaries have implemented backup and disaster recovery technology consistent with industry standards and practice.

Any certificate signed by an officer of the Company and delivered to Cowen or to counsel for Cowen shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty by the Company to Cowen as to the matters set forth therein.

The Company acknowledges that Cowen and, for purposes of the opinions to be delivered pursuant to Section 7 hereof, counsel to the Company and counsel to Cowen, will rely upon the accuracy and truthfulness of the foregoing representations and hereby consents to such reliance.


7. Covenants of the Company. The Company covenants and agrees with Cowen that:

(a) Registration Statement Amendments. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which a Prospectus relating to any Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act) (the “Prospectus Delivery Period”), (i) the Company will notify Cowen promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than documents incorporated by reference, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement (in so far as it relates to the Placement Shares or the transactions contemplated hereby) or Prospectus or for additional information, (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon Cowen’s request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in Cowen’s reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable to comply with applicable law, including the Securities Act (provided, however, that the failure of Cowen to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect Cowen’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, relating to the Placement Shares or a security convertible into the Placement Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to Cowen within a reasonable period of time before the filing and Cowen has not reasonably objected thereto (provided, however, that the failure of Cowen to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect Cowen’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement) and the Company will furnish to Cowen at the time of filing thereof a copy of any document that upon filing is deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus, except for those documents available via EDGAR; (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act, and (v) prior to the termination of this Agreement, the Company will notify Cowen if at any time the Registration Statement shall no longer be effective as a result of the passage of time pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act or otherwise.

(b) Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise Cowen, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued.

(c) Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes. During the Prospectus Delivery Period, the Company will comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and to file on or before their respective due dates (taking into account any extensions available under the Exchange Act) all reports and any definitive proxy or


information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify Cowen to suspend the offering of Placement Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance; provided, however, that the Company may delay the filing of any amendment or supplement, if in the reasonable judgment of the Company, it is in the best interest of the Company to do so.

(d) Listing of Placement Shares. During the Prospectus Delivery Period, the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on Nasdaq and to qualify the Placement Shares for sale under the securities laws of such jurisdictions as Cowen reasonably designates and to continue such qualifications in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required in connection therewith to qualify as a foreign corporation or dealer in securities or file a general consent to service of process in any jurisdiction.

(e) Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company will furnish to Cowen and its counsel (at the expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all documents incorporated by reference therein) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during the Prospectus Delivery Period (including all documents filed with the Commission during such period that are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as Cowen may from time to time reasonably request and, at Cowen’s request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Placement Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to Cowen to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.

(f) Earnings Statement. The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earnings statement (which need not be audited) covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) and Rule 158 of the Securities Act; provided, that the Company’s filing of its Annual Report on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q on the SEC’s EDGAR filing system will meet the requirements of this Section 7(f).

(g) Expenses. The Company, whether or not the transactions contemplated hereunder are consummated or this Agreement is terminated, in accordance with the provisions of Section 11 hereunder, will pay the following expenses all incident to the performance of its obligations hereunder, including, but not limited to, expenses relating to (i) the preparation, printing and filing of the Registration Statement and each amendment and supplement thereto, of each Prospectus and of each amendment and supplement thereto, (ii) the preparation, issuance and delivery of the Placement Shares, (iii) the qualification of the Placement Shares under securities


laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(d) of this Agreement, including filing fees (provided, however, that any fees or disbursements of counsel for Cowen in connection therewith shall be paid by Cowen except as set forth in (vii) below), (iv) the printing and delivery to Cowen of copies of the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto, and of this Agreement, (v) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing or qualification of the Placement Shares for trading on Nasdaq, (vi) the filing fees and expenses, if any, of the Commission, (vii) the filing fees and associated legal expenses of Cowen’s outside counsel for filings with the FINRA Corporate Financing Department, such legal expense reimbursement not to exceed $12,500 and, (viii) the reasonable fees and disbursements of Cowen’s counsel in an amount not to exceed $50,000, provided, however, in no event shall the total compensation paid to Cowen exceed 8.0% of the gross proceeds to the Company from the sale of Placement Shares.

(h) Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”

(i) Notice of Other Sales. During the pendency of any Placement Notice given hereunder, and for two (2) trading days following the termination of any Placement Notice given hereunder, the Company shall provide Cowen notice as promptly as reasonably practicable before it offers to sell, contracts to sell, sells, grants any option to sell or otherwise disposes of any shares of Common Stock (other than Placement Shares offered pursuant to the provisions of this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire Common Stock; provided, that such notice shall not be required in connection with the (i) issuance, grant or sale of Common Stock, options to purchase shares of Common Stock or Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of options or other equity awards pursuant to any stock option, stock bonus or other stock plan or arrangement described in the Prospectus, (ii) the issuance of securities in connection with an acquisition, merger or sale or purchase of assets or (iii) the issuance or sale of Common Stock pursuant to any dividend reinvestment plan that the Company may adopt from time to time provided the implementation of such is disclosed to Cowen in advance or (iv) any shares of common stock issuable upon the exchange, conversion or redemption of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding.

(j) Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during a fiscal quarter in which the Company intends to tender a Placement Notice or sell Placement Shares, advise Cowen promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document provided to Cowen pursuant to this Agreement.

(k) Due Diligence Cooperation. The Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by Cowen or its agents in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as Cowen may reasonably request.

(l) Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares. The Company agrees that on such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) either (A) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or (B) file an Exchange Act report, setting forth, within the relevant


period, the amount of Placement Shares sold through or to Cowen, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to Cowen with respect to such Placement Shares, and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement or Exchange Act report to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market.

(m) Representation Dates; Certificate. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and each time the Company (i) files the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares or amends or supplements the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares (other than a prospectus supplement filed in accordance with Section 7(l) of this Agreement) by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of document(s) by reference to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares; (ii) files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act; (iii) files its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or (iv) files a report on Form 8-K containing amended material financial information (other than an earnings release) under the Exchange Act (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a “Representation Date”); the Company shall furnish Cowen with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) within three (3) Trading Days of any Representation Date if requested by Cowen. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(m) shall be waived during any Suspension and for any Representation Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Representation Date) and the next occurring Representation Date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Representation Date when the Company revoked such Suspension or relied on such waiver and did not provide Cowen with a certificate under this Section 7(m), then before the Company delivers the Placement Notice or Cowen sells any Placement Shares, the Company shall provide Cowen with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m), dated the date of the Placement Notice.

(n) Legal Opinion. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within three (3) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) for which no Suspension or waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to Cowen a (1) written opinion and (2) a written negative assurance statement of Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, P.C. (“Company Counsel”), or other counsel satisfactory to Cowen, each in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel, dated the date that the opinion is required to be delivered, substantially similar to the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(n)(i) and Exhibit 7(n)(ii), respectively, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, however, that in lieu of such opinions and negative assurance statement for subsequent Representation Dates, counsel may furnish Cowen with a letter (a “Reliance Letter”) to the effect that Cowen may rely on a prior opinion and prior negative assurance statement delivered under this Section 7(n) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion and prior negative assurance statement shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Representation Date).


(o) Comfort Letter. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within three (3) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) for which no Suspension or waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause its independent accountants to furnish Cowen letters (the “Comfort Letters”), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen, (i) confirming that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) stating, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to Cowen in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the “Initial Comfort Letter”) and (iii) updating the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.

(p) Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or might reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Placement Shares or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase the Common Stock to be issued and sold pursuant to this Agreement, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than Cowen; provided, however, that the Company may bid for and purchase shares of its common stock in accordance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act.

(q) Insurance. During the term of this Agreement, the Company and its subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as is reasonable and customary for the business for which it is engaged.

(r) Compliance with Laws. During the term of this Agreement, he Company and each of its subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, all material environmental permits, licenses and other authorizations required by federal, state and local law in order to conduct their businesses as described in the Prospectus, and the Company and each of its subsidiaries shall conduct their businesses, or cause their businesses to be conducted, in substantial compliance with such permits, licenses and authorizations and with applicable environmental laws maintain or be in compliance with such permits, licenses and authorizations .

(s) Investment Company Act. During the term of this Agreement, the Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that neither it nor its subsidiaries will be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act, assuming no change in the Commission’s current interpretation as to entities that are not considered an investment company.

(t) Securities Act and Exchange Act. During the term of this Agreement, he Company will use its reasonable efforts to comply in all material respects with the requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act as from time to time in force, so far as necessary to permit the continuance of sales of, or dealings in, the Placement Shares as contemplated by the provisions hereof and the Prospectus.


(u) No Offer to Sell. Other than a free writing prospectus (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) approved in advance by the Company and Cowen in its capacity as principal or agent hereunder, neither Cowen nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than Cowen in its capacity as such) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Common Stock hereunder.

(v) Sarbanes-Oxley Act. During the term of this Agreement, the Company and its subsidiaries will use reasonable efforts to comply in all material respects with the effective applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

8. Conditions to Cowen’s Obligations. The obligations of Cowen hereunder with respect to a Placement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein, to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder, to the completion by Cowen of a due diligence review satisfactory to Cowen in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by Cowen in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:

(a) Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall be effective and shall be available for (i) all sales of Placement Shares issued pursuant to all prior Placement Notices and (ii) the sale of all Placement Shares contemplated to be issued by any Placement Notice.

(b) No Material Notices. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company or any of its subsidiaries of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any material document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, related Prospectus or such documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, that in the case of the Prospectus, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(c) No Misstatement or Material Omission. Cowen shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in Cowen’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in Cowen’s opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.


(d) Material Changes. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change, on a consolidated basis, in the authorized capital stock of the Company or any Material Adverse Change or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change, or any downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities) by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), the effect of which, in the case of any such action by a rating organization described above, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Placement Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.

(e) Company Counsel Legal Opinion. Cowen shall have received the opinion and negative assurance statement, or, if applicable, Reliance Letter, of Company Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n) on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinion, negative assurance statement or Reliance Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(n).

(f) Cowen Counsel Legal Opinion. Cowen shall have received from Duane Morris LLP, counsel for Cowen, such opinion or opinions, on or before the date on which the delivery of the Company Counsel legal opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n), with respect to such matters as Cowen may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they request for enabling them to pass upon such matters.

(g) Comfort Letter. Cowen shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(o) on or before the date on which such delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(o).

(h) Representation Certificate. Cowen shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(m) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(m).

(i) Secretary’s Certificate. On or prior to the First Delivery Date, Cowen shall have received a certificate, signed on behalf of the Company by its corporate Secretary, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel.

(j) No Suspension. Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on Nasdaq.

(k) Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m), the Company shall have furnished to Cowen such appropriate further information, certificates and documents as Cowen may have reasonably requested. All such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents shall have been in compliance with the provisions hereof. The Company will furnish Cowen with such conformed copies of such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as Cowen shall have reasonably requested.


(l) Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424.

(m) Approval for Listing. The Placement Shares shall either have been (i) approved for listing on Nasdaq, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Placement Shares on Nasdaq at, or prior to, the issuance of any Placement Notice.

(n) No Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit Cowen to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 11(a).

9. Indemnification and Contribution.

(a) Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless Cowen, the directors, officers, partners, employees and agents of Cowen and each person, if any, who (i) controls Cowen within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with Cowen from and against any and all losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including, but not limited to, any and all reasonable investigative, legal and other expenses incurred in connection with, and any and all amounts paid in settlement (in accordance with Section 9(c)) of, any action, suit or proceeding between any of the indemnified parties and any indemnifying parties or between any indemnified party and any third party, or otherwise, or any claim asserted), as and when incurred by that indemnified party in connection therewith, to which Cowen, or any such person, may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, at common law or otherwise, insofar as such losses, claims, liabilities, expenses or damages arise out of or are based, directly or indirectly, on (x) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or in any free writing prospectus or other document executed by or on behalf of the Company or based on written information furnished by or on behalf of the Company filed in any jurisdiction in order to qualify the Common Stock under the securities laws thereof or filed with the Commission, (y) the omission or alleged omission to state in any such document a material fact required to be stated in it or necessary to make the statements in it not misleading or (z) any material breach by any of the indemnifying parties of any of their respective representations, warranties and agreements contained in this Agreement; provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to the extent that such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage arises from the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and is caused directly or indirectly by an untrue statement or omission made in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that the Company might otherwise have.


(b) Cowen Indemnification. Cowen agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company that signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Company against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 9(a), as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto) or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information.

(c) Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 9 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 9, notify each such indemnifying party in writing of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 9 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 9 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any legal or other expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel to assume the defense of such action within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action, in each of which cases, if such indemnified party notifies the indemnifying party in writing that it elects to employ separate counsel, the reasonable fees, disbursements and other


charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm of attorneys at any time for all such indemnified parties (in addition to local counsel), which firm shall be designated in writing by the indemnified parties. All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly as they are incurred. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 9 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party from all liability arising or that may arise out of such claim, action or proceeding.

(d) Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 9 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable from the Company or Cowen, the Company and Cowen will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement (in accordance with Section 9(c)) of, any action, suit or proceeding or any claim asserted, but after deducting any contribution received by the Company from persons other than Cowen, such as persons who control the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act, officers of the Company who signed the Registration Statement and directors of the Company, who also may be liable for contribution) to which the Company and Cowen may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other from the sale of the Placement Shares. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other hand with respect to the sale of the Placement Shares shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total Net Proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by Cowen from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and Cowen, on the other, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering. Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or Cowen, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and Cowen agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 9(d) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense, or damage, or action in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 9(d) shall be deemed to


include, subject to the limitation set forth in this Section 9(d), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action or claim to the extent consistent with Section 9(c) hereof. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 9(d), Cowen shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 9(d), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any officers, directors, partners, employees or agents of Cowen, will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each director or officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 9(d), will notify in writing any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 9(d) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 9(c) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 9(c) hereof.

10. Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery. The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 9 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of Cowen, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Placement Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.

11. Termination.

(a) Cowen shall have the right by giving notice as hereinafter specified at any time to terminate this Agreement if (i) any Material Adverse Change, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change has occurred that, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen, may materially impair the ability of Cowen to sell the Placement Shares hereunder, (ii) the Company shall have failed, refused or been unable to perform any agreement on its part to be performed hereunder; provided, however, in the case of any failure of the Company to deliver (or cause another person to deliver) any certification, opinion, or letter required under Sections 7(m), 7(n), or 7(o), Cowen’s right to terminate shall not arise unless such failure to deliver (or cause to be delivered) continues for more than thirty (30) days from the date such delivery was required; or (iii) any other condition of Cowen’s obligations hereunder is not fulfilled, or (iv), any suspension or limitation of trading in the Placement Shares or in securities generally on Nasdaq shall have occurred. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g) (Expenses), Section 9 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 10 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 16 (Applicable Law; Consent to Jurisdiction) and Section 17 (Waiver of Jury Trial) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If Cowen elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 11(a), Cowen shall provide the required notice as specified in Section 12 (Notices).


(b) The Company shall have the right, by giving five (5) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(c) Cowen shall have the right, by giving five (5) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(d) Unless earlier terminated pursuant to this Section 11, this Agreement shall automatically terminate upon the issuance and sale of all of the Placement Shares through Cowen on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein; provided that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(e) This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 11(a), (b), (c), or (d) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 shall remain in full force and effect.

(f) Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by Cowen or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

(g) Subject to the additional limitations set forth in Section 7 of this Agreement, in the event of the termination of this Agreement prior to the sale of any Placement Shares, Cowen shall be entitled only to reimbursement of its out of pocket expenses actually incurred.

12. Notices. All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified in this Agreement, and if sent to Cowen, shall be delivered to Cowen at Cowen and Company, LLC, 599 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10022, fax no. 646-562-1124, Attention: General Counsel, with a copy to Duane Morris LLP, 1540 Broadway, New York, NY 10036, attention: James T. Seery, Email: jtseery@duanemorris.com; or if sent to the Company, shall be delivered to Otonomy, Inc., 4796 Executive Drive, San Diego, California 92121, attention: General Counsel, Email: legaldepartment@otonomy.com, with a copy to Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, P.C., 650 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, California 94304, attention: Jennifer Knapp, Email: jknapp@wsgr.com. Each party to this Agreement may change


such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose. Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally or by verifiable facsimile transmission (with an original to follow) on or before 4:30 p.m., New York City time, on a Business Day (as defined below), or, if such day is not a Business Day on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier and (iii) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid). For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which the Nasdaq and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.

13. Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and Cowen and their respective successors, permitted assigns and the affiliates, controlling persons, officers and directors referred to in Section 9 hereof. References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of such party. Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended or shall be construed to confer upon any party other than persons mentioned in the first sentence of this Section 13 any legal or equitable rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement. Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that Cowen may assign its rights and obligations hereunder to an affiliate of Cowen without obtaining the Company’s consent.

14. Adjustments for Share Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any share split, share dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Common Stock.

15. Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability. This Agreement (including all schedules and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof. Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and Cowen. In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement.

16. Applicable Law; Consent to Jurisdiction. This Agreement shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York without regard to the principles of conflicts of laws. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, borough of Manhattan, for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection with any transaction contemplated hereby, and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is brought in an inconvenient forum or that the venue of such suit, action or


proceeding is improper. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Agreement and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any manner permitted by law.

17. Waiver of Jury Trial. The Company and Cowen each hereby irrevocably waives any right it may have to a trial by jury in respect of any claim based upon or arising out of this Agreement or any transaction contemplated by this Agreement, the Registration Statement and any Prospectus.

18. Absence of Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that:

(a) Cowen has been retained solely to act as sales agent in connection with the sale of the Common Stock and that no fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship between the Company and Cowen has been created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether Cowen has advised or is advising the Company on other matters;

(b) the Company is capable of evaluating and understanding and understands and accepts the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;

(c) the Company has been advised that Cowen and its affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and that Cowen has no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship; and

(d) the Company waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against Cowen, for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty and agrees that Cowen shall have no liability (whether direct or indirect) to the Company in respect of such a fiduciary claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on behalf of or in right of the Company, including stockholders, partners, employees or creditors of the Company.

19. Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Delivery of an executed Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile transmission.

20. Definitions. As used in this Agreement, the following term has the meaning set forth below:

(a) “Agents Information means, solely the following information in the Prospectus: the third sentence of the eighth paragraph under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus.


[Remainder of Page Intentionally Blank]


If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and Cowen, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and Cowen.

 

Very truly yours,
COWEN AND COMPANY, LLC
By:   /s/ Michael J. Murphy
  Name: Michael J. Murphy
  Title:   Managing Director
ACCEPTED as of the date first-above written:
OTONOMY, INC.
By:   /s/ Paul E. Cayer
Name:   Paul E. Cayer
Title:   Chief Financial and Business Officer


SCHEDULE 1

FORM OF PLACEMENT NOTICE

 

From:    [                                    ]
Cc:    [                                    ]
To:    [                                    ]
Subject:    Cowen at the Market Offering—Placement Notice

Gentlemen:

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Sales Agreement between Otonomy, Inc. (the “Company”), and Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”) dated August 1, 2019 (the “Agreement”), I hereby request on behalf of the Company that Cowen sell up to [    ] shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, at a minimum market price of $_______ per share. Sales should begin on the date of this Notice and shall continue until [DATE] [all shares are sold].


SCHEDULE 2

Notice Parties

The Company

Paul E. Cayer, Chief Financial & Business Officer

David A. Weber, Chief Executive Officer & President

Cowen

Michael J. Murphy    Managing Director
William Follis    Managing Director


SCHEDULE 3

Compensation

Cowen shall be paid compensation equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sales of Common Stock pursuant to the terms of this Agreement.


Exhibit 7(n)(i)

MATTERS TO BE COVERED BY INITIAL OPINION OF COMPANY COUNSEL

[To be circulated separately.]


Exhibit 7(n)(ii)

Matters to be covered by subsequent Company Counsel Opinions

[To be circulated separately.]


Exhibit 7(m)

OFFICER CERTIFICATE

The undersigned, the duly qualified and elected _______________________, of Otonomy, Inc. (“Company”), a Delaware corporation, does hereby certify in such capacity and on behalf of the Company, pursuant to Section 7(m) of the Sales Agreement dated August 1, 2019 (the “Sales Agreement”) between the Company and Cowen and Company, LLC, that to the knowledge of the undersigned:

(i) The representations and warranties of the Company in Section 6 of the Sales Agreement (A) to the extent such representations and warranties are subject to qualifications and exceptions contained therein relating to materiality or Material Adverse Change, are true and correct on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof, except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date, and (B) to the extent such representations and warranties are not subject to any qualifications or exceptions, are true and correct in all material respects as of the date hereof as if made on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date; and

(ii) The Company has complied with all agreements and satisfied all conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied pursuant to the Sales Agreement at or prior to the date hereof.

 

By:    
  Name:
  Title:

Date:                                                     

EX-5.1

Exhibit 5.1

August 1, 2019

Otonomy, Inc.

4796 Executive Drive

San Diego, California 92121

Re: At-the-Market Offering

Ladies and Gentlemen:

We have acted as counsel to Otonomy, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), in connection with the registration of the offer and sale of up to $40,000,000 of shares (the “Shares”) of the Company’s common stock, $0.001 par value per share, pursuant to the Company’s shelf Registration Statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-227269), filed on September 10, 2018 and declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) on September 21, 2018 (the “Registration Statement”).

The offering and sale of the Shares are being made pursuant to the Sales Agreement (the “Sales Agreement”), dated as of August 1, 2019, by and between the Company and Cowen and Company, LLC.

We have examined copies of the Sales Agreement, the Registration Statement, the base prospectus that forms a part thereof and the prospectus supplement thereto related to the offering of the Shares, which prospectus supplement is dated as of the date hereof and will be filed by the Company in accordance with Rule 424(b) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933. We have also examined instruments, documents and records which we deemed relevant and necessary for the basis of our opinion hereinafter expressed.

In such examination, we have assumed (i) the authenticity of original documents and the genuineness of all signatures, (ii) the conformity to the originals of all documents submitted to us as copies, and (iii) the truth, accuracy, and completeness of the information, representations and warranties contained in the records, documents, instruments and certificates we have reviewed.

Based on and subject to the foregoing, we are of the opinion that the Shares have been duly authorized by the Company and, when issued and delivered by the Company against payment therefor in accordance with the terms of the Sales Agreement, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

We express no opinion as to the laws of any other jurisdiction other than the federal laws of the United States of America and the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.

We hereby consent to the use of this opinion as an exhibit to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed on or about August 1, 2019, for incorporation by reference into the Registration Statement.

 

Sincerely,

/s/ WILSON SONSINI GOODRICH & ROSATI, P.C.

WILSON SONSINI GOODRICH & ROSATI
Professional Corporation